no dark brown
Haminoea cf. natalensis Krauss, 1848
|Maximum size: 23 mm.
translucent, straw-colored shell with fine, wavy
spiral striae. The animal is cream
blotched with olive and brown. Dark brown spots, orange-brown spots and
white flecks show through the shell but, in older animals, the
shell becomes thicker and darker
partially obscuring the underlying pattern. There is a band of darker
between the eye spots on top of the head. Rarely, dark spots may be
Haminoea cf. natalensis
is one of the most common haminoeids in Hawaii. It can be found in
mixed and rocky habitats from < 1 to 8 m (< 3 to 26 ft) but is
most common at shallower depths. It occurs in highly protected to
highly exposed locations but is most common in protected areas. It is
only occasionally found in Halimeda
kanaloana beds. Nocturnally active, it is often associated with
patches of the blue green algae Lygbia
on which it probably feeds. According to Kohn (1959) it's the most common species eaten by the molluscivorous cone, Conus pennaceus. The elongate egg mass is cream to
greenish-yellow and contains a "slinky like" egg string. It's attached
an adhesive surface and usually acquires a coating of
sand or detritus in the field. It typically hatches in about three days
in the laboratory.
Big Island, Maui, Oahu, Kauai, Niihau and Midway: widely distributed in
listed in Kay, 1979, Morris, 1974 and Tinker, 1958 as Haminoea
crocata Pease, 1860.
Shells at the Bishop Museum attributed to Haminoea adamsii Dunker, 1862 and Haminoea galba, Pease, 1861b also
appear to be this species and the photo labeled H. galba in Kay, 1979 is probably
of H. cf. natalensis, as well. Haminea sandwichensis Sowerby,
1868 may also be a synonym (Kay, 1979). It's illustrated in Johnson, 1982 as "Haminoea sp.". It's listed as Haminoea sp. 1 in Severns, 2011 and recent DNA evidence suggests that the Indo-Pacific Haminoea natalensis is probably a complex. (Manuel Malaquias, pers. com.) It was first reported
from Hawaii in Pease,
1860 (as Haminea crocata). The animals and egg masses listed as Bulla sp. in Ostergaard, 1950 were probably this species, instead.
Photo: CP: about 20
mm: Hekili Point, Maui; Nov. 26, 2007.
Observations and comments:
1: ( )