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Onchidiidae
Ellobiidae
Siphonariidae
  

Marine Pulmonate Addendum

Some authors place the "lower Heterobranchia", Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata within the clade Heterobranchia. So, we've decided to include an addendum containing the marine pulmonates so all the marine heterobranchs will be covered on the site. Pulmonata contains most land snails and slugs, most fresh water snails and only a few marine species. All of them are hermaphrodites and most can absorb oxygen from the air via a modified mantle cavity. Three families are known from Hawaii: Onchidiidae (placed in the Opisthobranchia in Kay, 1979), Ellobiidae (formerly Melampidae) and Siphonariidae (placed in the Opisthobranchia in Grande, et. al., 2004 and Medina, et. al., 2011).

Kocot, et. al. (2011) recovers Opisthobranchia as paraphyletic with respect to Pulmonata. That would suggest moving all the marine pulmonates into the Opisthobranchia. However, they haven't been traditionally considered opisthobranchs so we've decided to leave them in an addendum, at least for now.

The following information is derived primarily from reconciling Pilsbry (1917-1921), Kay (1979), and Severns (2011) with each other and with our own material. So, the IDs should be viewed as tentative, pending further work. Unlike for the opisthobranchs, we haven't kept extensive notes on these families--no running log of finds or detailed records of the source of photographed animals. Therefore, we can't guarantee that it includes the latest names and it may not be as comprehensive as the opisthobranch section.

Onchidiidae
The family Onchidiidae includes slug-like mollusks that live in the high intertidal. They lack a shell and have tuberculate mantles. They feed on micro-algae. One species in the genus Onchidium is known from Hawaii.


Onchidium verruculatum



Ellobiidae
The family Ellobiidae includes primitive pulmonates that live in the high intertidal and supratidal zones. About 15 species are known from Hawaii including the genera Allochroa, Auricularia, Blaunereia, Laemodonta, Melampus and Pedipes.

Allochroa layardi
no photo
available
Auriculastra subula

Blauneria gracilis

Blauneria quadrasi





Laemodonta clausa

Laemodonta octanfracta

Melampus castaneus

Melampus parvulus





Melampus(?) sculptus

Melampus sp. #1

Pedipes sandwicensis

un. sp. #1





un. sp. #2

un. sp. #3

un. sp. #4



Siphonariidae
The family Siphonariidae includes limpet-like species that inhabit the intertidal and subtidal. At least three species are found in Hawaii in the genera Siphonaria and Williamia, the former intertidal and the latter subtidal. They feed on micro-algae.

Medina, et. al., (2011) recovers the Siphonariidae as the sister group to the Sacoglossa and they could be inserted in the main list as an opisthobranch order under the name Siphonariacea (or be grouped with the Sacoglossa as the Siphoglossa). However, since they haven't been traditionally considered opisthobranchs, we've decided to leave them in the marine pulmonate addendum, at least for now.

Siphonaria normalis

Siphonaria sp. #1

Williamia radiata
 
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