Species list

Marine Pulmonate Addendum

Some authors place the "lower Heterobranchia", Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata within the clade Heterobranchia. So, we've decided to include an addendum containing the marine pulmonates so all the marine heterobranchs will be covered on the site. Pulmonata contains most land snails and slugs, most fresh water snails and only a few marine species. All of them are hermaphrodites and most can absorb oxygen from the air via a modified mantle cavity. Three families traditionally placed in the Pulmonata are known from Hawaii: Onchidiidae (placed in the Opisthobranchia in Kay, 1979), Ellobiidae (formerly Melampidae) and Siphonariidae (placed in the Opisthobranchia in Grande, et. al., 2004 and Medina, et. al., 2011).

Kocot, et. al. (2011) recovers Opisthobranchia as paraphyletic with respect to Pulmonata. That would suggest moving all the marine pulmonates into the Opisthobranchia. However, they haven't been traditionally considered opisthobranchs so we've decided to leave them in an addendum, at least for now.

Bouchet, et. al., 1917 places the Sacoglossa and Pyramidellidae in with the pulmonates. They also include the Acochlidimorpha, a group of small, worm-like species traditionally placed with the opisthobranchs. As a matter of convenience, we're following suite for the latter but not the former.

The following information is derived primarily from reconciling Pilsbry (1917-1921), Kay (1979), and Severns (2011) with each other and with our own material. So, the IDs should be viewed as tentative, pending further work. Unlike for the opisthobranchs, we haven't kept extensive notes on these families--no running log of finds or detailed records of the source of photographed animals. Therefore, we can't guarantee that it includes the latest names and it may not be as comprehensive as the opisthobranch section.

The Parheylidae are small, worm-like animals in the order Acochlidimorpha (= Acochlidiacea; = Acochlidia). They lack shells and have ahort, paired tentacles on the head. Like most Acochlidimorpha, they live interstitially in sand. There are at least three species in Hawaii in the genera Microhedyle, Paraganitus and Pontohedyle

Information on the family was primarily provided by Katharina Jörger.

Microhedyle sp. #1

Paraganitus sp. #1

Pontohedyle sp. #1

The family Onchidiidae includes slug-like mollusks that live in the high intertidal. They lack a shell and have tuberculate mantles. They feed on micro-algae. One species in the genus Onchidium is known from Hawaii.

Onchidium verruculatum

The family Ellobiidae includes primitive pulmonates that live in the high intertidal and supratidal zones. About 14 species are known from Hawaii including the genera Allochroa, Auricularia, Blaunereia, Laemodonta, Melampus and Pedipes.

Allochroa layardi
no photo
Auriculastra subula

Blauneria gracilis

Blauneria quadrasi

Laemodonta octanfracta

Laemodonta sp. #1

Melampus castaneus

Melampus parvulus

Melampus(?) sculptus

Melampus sp. #1

Pedipes sandwicensis

un. sp. #1

un. sp. #2

un. sp. #3

The family Siphonariidae includes limpet-like species that inhabit the intertidal and subtidal. At least three species are found in Hawaii in the genera Siphonaria and Williamia, the former intertidal and the latter subtidal. They feed on micro-algae.

Medina, et. al., (2011) recovers the Siphonariidae as the sister group to the Sacoglossa and they could be inserted in the main list as an opisthobranch order under the name Siphonariacea (or be grouped with the Sacoglossa as the Siphoglossa). However, since they haven't been traditionally considered opisthobranchs, we've decided to leave them in the marine pulmonate addendum, at least for now.

Siphonaria normalis

Siphonaria sp. #1

Williamia radiata
Species list