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Costasiella kuroshimae
Ichikawa, 1993
 
Costasiella kuroshimae
Maximum size:  4.5 mm.

Identification:  This species has a translucent cream body decorated with white and with a mahogany patch on the head behind the eyes. Black pigment on the head is variably developed and the rhinophores are tipped with black. Branches of the digestive gland in the cerata shift from olive green basally to mahogany sub-apically. Some white patches and flecks may appear iridescent-blue depending on lighting.

Natural history:  Costasiella kuroshimae is a rare species known from only three animals, two found at 1-2 m (3-6 ft) on an exposed to moderately exposed accretion platform on Oahu.

Distribution:  Oahu: widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific.

Taxonomic notes:  It was first recorded in Hawaii from Diamond Head State Park, Oahu by CP on Oct. 3, 1999. Costasiella kuroshimae is generally considered to be a variable species. So, we're giving precedence to the shared characteristics and lumping the 1999 and 2014 animals. However, they also differ on some points leaving a possibility that they could ultimately turn out to be separate species. If they are split, the 2014 animal is likely to remain under the name since it appears to be a closer match for the Japanese material.

Photo:  CP: 3.2 mm: Diamond Head State Park, Oahu; Oct. 3, 1999.

Observations and comments:

Note 1:  ( )
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