Species list
Next species
Additional Photos



rhinophore detail


small blue spots

large cream spots

young, 7 mm



Miamira sinuata
(van Hasselt, 1824)
Miamira sinuata
Maximum size:  53 mm.

Identification:  In Hawaii, this species has a bright green body with yellow to orange spots. Irregular bright blue spots, sometimes ringed in brown, encircle the notum just inside the mantle edge. (Note 1) The greenish rhinophores and translucent tan gills are finely flecked with white. An unusual characteristic of this species is the tri-lobed anterior end of the mantle, with the middle lobe longer than the other two, almost giving it the appearance of having a “nose.”

Natural history:  Miamira sinuata is rarely seen in Hawaii. It has been recorded from tide pools and down to a depth of 27 m (88 ft) in moderately exposed to exposed rocky habitats. Elsewhere in the Pacific, it has been found in association with sponges of the genus Dysidea (Gosliner, et. al., 1996). The anterior and  lateral mantle lobes may contain concentrations of glands that produce chemicals known to repel predators. It feeds on a gray-violet sponge, perhaps in the genus Dysidea.

Distribution:  Big Island, Maui, Molokai, Oahu and Midway: widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific.

Taxonomic notes:   A purple/brown color form found elsewhere in the Pacific has not been seen in Hawaii and some Hawaiian animals have larger blue spots than most M. sinuata found in other regions. That provides some support for the hypothesis that the Hawaiian population may be genetically distinct. It is listed in Bertsch and Johnson, 1981 as "jolly green giant" and was first recorded in Hawaii from Waialua, Oahu by Scott Johnson on June 10, 1978. It's listed as Ceratosoma sinuata and referred to as the "jolly green giant" in Hoover, 1998 & 2006 (corrected in 2019 printing). The presence of two distinct types of blue spotting in the Indo-Pacific population suggests that the species might be split in the future (only one is present in Hawaii).

Photo:  CP: Napili Bay, Maui; May 1, 2003.

Observations and comments:

Note 1:  The blue spots on a gold background aren't as precisely matched to the blue and gold ocelli found in the sea hares Stylocheilus striatus and Phycophila euchlora as are the markings in some other possible mimics. But, perhaps they are close enough so that M. sinuata is still deriving some benefit from the resemblance (since the sea hares are known to concentrate toxins from the cyanobacteria they eat)?
Species list
Family Next species Top